1. Introduction

1.1. Motivating example

Suppose we want to encode lambda-calculus using an ADT. We could use the following one:

data Expr n -- "n" represents a variable name
   = Lambda n (Expr n)
   | Var n
   | App (Expr n) (Expr n)

We can define a pretty-print operation:

prettyPrint :: Show n => Expr n -> String
prettyPrint = \case
   Var n      -> show n
   Lambda n e -> mconcat ["\\",show n,".",prettyPrint e]
   App e1 e2  -> mconcat ["(",prettyPrint e1,") (",prettyPrint e2,")"]

And we can test on an example:

sampleDouble :: Expr String
sampleDouble = Lambda "x" (Var "+" `App` Var "x" `App` Var "x")

> putStrLn (prettyPrint sampleDouble)
\"x".(("+") ("x")) ("x")

Now suppose that we want to add support for annotations. We can define a new expression ADT with an additional constructor:

data AExpr a n -- "n" represents a variable name, "a" represents an annotation
   = ALambda n (AExpr a n)
   | AVar n
   | AApp (AExpr a n) (AExpr a n)
   | Ann a (AExpr a n)

But now we need to rewrite our operations and expressions (such as “prettyPrint” and “sampleDouble”) to handle and to use the constructors of the new expression ADT:

prettyPrintA :: (Show n, Show a) => AExpr a n -> String
prettyPrintA = \case
   AVar n      -> show n
   ALambda n e -> mconcat ["\\",show n,".",prettyPrintA e]
   AApp e1 e2  -> mconcat ["(",prettyPrintA e1,") (",prettyPrintA e2,")"]
   Ann a e     -> mconcat ["{",show a,"} ", prettyPrintA e]

sampleDoubleA :: AExpr a String
sampleDoubleA = ALambda "x" (AVar "+" `AApp` AVar "x" `AApp` AVar "x")

sampleAnnA :: AExpr String String
sampleAnnA = Ann "Double its input" sampleDouble

Now the problem is that we have two totally independent expression types (Expr and AExpr) with different operations (prettyPrint vs prettyPrintA) which can’t be easily mixed. Moreover to define prettyPrintA we had to copy-paste prettyPrint just to add a single case alternative. Now suppose that we want to add a new function (e.g. to compute free variables of an expression): should we implement it for Expr, for AExpr, for both?

Finally suppose that we want to add some other constructors: we either get a combinatorial explosion of ADTs and functions, or we give up on static checking and use the “largest” ADT (which contains a superset of the constructors of the others) with some conventions, e.g. comments and runtime assertions such as “at this point this expression shouldn’t contain any annotation” that are not enforced by the compiler.

1.2. Motivating example with EADTs

The same example with EADTs would be written as follows. First we define the EADTs:

import Haskus.Utils.EADT
import Haskus.Utils.EADT.TH

data LambdaF n e = LambdaF n e deriving Functor
data VarF    n e = VarF    n   deriving Functor
data AppF      e = AppF    e e deriving Functor
data AnnF    a e = AnnF    a e deriving Functor

eadtPattern 'LambdaF "Lambda"
eadtPattern 'VarF    "Var"
eadtPattern 'AppF    "App"
eadtPattern 'AnnF    "Ann"

type Expr    n = EADT '[LambdaF n, VarF n, AppF]
type AExpr a n = EADT '[LambdaF n, VarF n, AppF, AnnF a]

Then we define the prettyPrint operation by using type classes:

class PrettyPrint f where
   prettyPrint' :: f String -> String

instance Show n => PrettyPrint (VarF n) where
   prettyPrint' (VarF n) = show n

instance Show n => PrettyPrint (LambdaF n) where
   prettyPrint' (LambdaF n e) = mconcat ["\\",show n,".",e]

instance PrettyPrint AppF where
   prettyPrint' (AppF e1 e2) = mconcat ["(",e1,") (",e2,")"]

instance Show a => PrettyPrint (AnnF a) where
   prettyPrint' (AnnF a e) = mconcat ["{",show a,"} ",e]

prettyPrint :: BottomUp PrettyPrint xs String => EADT xs -> String
prettyPrint e = bottomUp (toBottomUp @PrettyPrint prettyPrint') e

We can test it with:

sampleDouble :: Expr String
sampleDouble = Lambda "x" (Var "+" `App` Var "x" `App` Var "x")

sampleAnn :: AExpr String String
sampleAnn = Ann "Double its input" (liftEADT sampleDouble)

> putStrLn (prettyPrint sampleDouble)
\"x".(("+") ("x")) ("x")

> putStrLn (prettyPrint sampleAnn)
{"Double its input"} \"x".(("+") ("x")) ("x")